Bolting and tensioning
Tensioning of bolts and screws is a technology of the connecting material by an axial force, this force will not exceed, for example, 60% of the yield strength of the given connecting material. This ensures that the bolts and the joint are still flexible even after repeated tensioning, the connecting material does not need to be changed and the joint is tightened with the highest possible accuracy. By tightening, it is possible to achieve to tighten screws, bolts or joints almost according to the design or calculation conditions.
Hydraulic bolting and tensioning systems are mostly used, but mechanical tensioners or washers are also very accurate.